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Mice may also be used for dominant lethal assays where early embryonic deaths are monitored. Male mice are treated with chemicals under test, mated with females, and the females are then sacrificed before parturition and early fetal deaths are counted in the uterine horns. Transgenic mouse assay using a mouse strain infected with a viral shuttle vector is another method for testing mutagens.

Animals are first treated with suspected mutagen, the mouse DNA is then isolated and the phage segment recovered and used to infect E. Using similar method as the blue-white screen , the plaque formed with DNA containing mutation are white, while those without are blue. Many mutagens are highly toxic to proliferating cells, and they are often used to destroy cancer cells.

Alkylating agents such as cyclophosphamide and cisplatin , as well as intercalating agent such as daunorubicin and doxorubicin may be used in chemotherapy. However, due to their effect on other cells which are also rapidly dividing, they may have side effects such as hair loss and nausea.

Research on better targeted therapies may reduce such side-effects. Ionizing radiations are used in radiation therapy. In science fiction , mutagens are often represented as substances that are capable of completely changing the form of the recipient or granting them superpowers. Powerful radiations are the agents of mutation for the superheroes in Marvel Comics 's Fantastic Four , Daredevil , and Hulk , while in the Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles franchise the mutagen is chemical agent also called "ooze", and for Inhumans the mutagen is the Terrigen Mist.

In the "nuclear monster" films of the s, nuclear radiation mutates humans and common insects often to enormous size and aggression; these films include Godzilla, Them! From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Main article: Mutagenesis. Main articles: Antimutagen and Antioxidants. Main article: Ames test. Annals of Surgical Oncology.

Archived from the original on 19 Mar Cautions against the immoderate use of snuff: founded on the known qualities of the tobacco plant: and the effects it must produce when this way taken into the body: and enforced by instances of persons who have perished miserably of diseases, occasioned, or rendered incurable by its use. British Journal of Industrial Medicine. University of New Hampshire Law Review.

Archived from the original on 18 Aug Berlin: Springer Verlag. Archives of Toxicology. Archived PDF from the original on 2 Aug Bibcode : Sci Archived PDF from the original on 30 Oct Introduction to Genetic Analysis 10th ed. Biology 7th ed. Unfiltered Radiation". Bibcode : PNAS Photochemistry and Photobiology. Archived from the original on 17 Nov December Mutation Research. Archived from the original PDF on 30 Oct Testing of carcinogens and noncarcinogens in Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli". Environmental Mutagenesis. Archived PDF from the original on 23 Oct January Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton.

Archived from the original on 1 Aug Retrieved 24 Jan Calabrese says mistake led to adopting the LNT model in toxicology. Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology. August The Journal of Biological Chemistry. In Aronson JK ed. Side Effects of Drugs Annual.

March A transhalogenation pathway for generating mutagenic nucleobases during inflammation".

Genotoxicology of N-Nitroso Compounds pp Cite as. The potential impact of environmental chemicals on the induction of cancer in humans has become a worldwide problem. These compounds are widespread in our environment, 3 occurring in food preservatives, 4 milk, 5 tobacco smoke, 6,7 meat-curing mixtures, 8 and various other foodstuffs, 9 industrial products and by-products, 10—12 and some plants. Although the mode of action of nitrosamines is largely unclear, it is thought that nitrosamines act through biotransformed active metabolites. These metabolites may alkylate cellular macromolecules, particularly DNA, thereby possibly altering the genome of the target cells, which could eventually result in transformation into a neoplastic state.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF. Skip to main content. Advertisement Hide. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves. This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access. Boyland, The correlation of experimental carcinogenesis and cancer in man, Prog. Tumor Res. Google Scholar.

Preussman, E. Walker, and W. Lijinsky and S. Epstein, Nitrosamines as environmental carcinogens, Nature London , 21—23 Druckrey, R. Preussmann, S.

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Schmiihl, Organotrope carcinogene kungen bei 65 versabiedenon N-nitroso verbindungen and BD ratten, Z. Hedler and P. Marquardt, Occurrence of diethylnitrosamine in some samples of food, Food Cosmet. Druckrey and R. Preussman, Zur Entstehung carcinogener Nitrosamine und beispiel des Tabakrauches, Naturwissenschaften 49 , — CrossRef Google Scholar. Bogovski, R. Sen, W. Mile, B. Donaldson, T. Panalaks, and J. Wolff and A. Wasserman, Nitrates, nitrites and nitrosamine, food stuff and tobacco contains nitrosamines, Science , 15—19 Magee, Possible hazard from nitrosamines in industry, Ann.

Cohn, G. Zweig, M. Law, D. Wright, and W. Walker, M. Gastegnaro, L. Griciute, R. Lyle, and W. Nagao, T.

Carcinogen

Sugimura, and T. Matsushima, Environmental mutagens and carcinogens, Ann. Eisenbrand, O. Ungerer, and R. Magee and E. Farber, Toxic liver injury and carcinogenesis: Methylation of rat liver nucleic acid by dimethylnitrosamine in vitro , Mechem.

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Magee and J. Barnes, Carcinogenic nitroso compounds, Adv. Cancer Res. Montesano and H. Bartsch, Mutagenic and carcinogenic N-nitroso-compound: Possible environmental hazards.


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Anselme, ed. Washington, D. Garcia and W. Lijinsky, Studies of the tumorigenic effect in feeding of nitrosa mino acids and of low doses of amines and nitrite to rats, Z. Lijinsky and H. Taylor, Carcinogenicity of methylated nitrosopiperidine, Int. Cancer 16 , — a. Taylor, Carcinogenicity of methylated dinitropiperazine in rats.

Taylor, Tumorigenesis by oxygenated nitrosopiperidines in rats, J. Cancer Inst. PubMed Google Scholar. Taylor, Carcinogenicity of N-nitroso 3,4-dichloro and N-nitroso3,4-dibromopiperidine in rats, Cancer Res. Lijinsky and R. Walker, P. Bogovski, L. Griciate, and W. France Taylor, Carcinogenicity tests of N-nitroso derivatives of two drugs, phenmetrazine and methylphenidate, Cancer Lett.

Potential industrial carcinogens and mutagens / Lawrence Fishbein. - Version details - Trove

Taylor, Carcinogenesis tests of nitroso-N-methylpiperazine, 2,3,5,6-tetramethyl dinitrosopiperazine, nitrosoisonipecotic acid and nitrosomethyoxymethylamine in rat, Z. Love, W. Lijinsky, L. Andrew, L. Thibault, and W. Lijinsky, The relationship between mutagenicity and carcinogenicity of some nitrosamines, Mutas. Lijinsky and A. Preussman, Zur Entstehung carcinogener Nitrosamine und beispiel des Tabakrauches, Naturwissenschaften 49 , — CrossRef Google Scholar. Bogovski, R. Sen, W. Mile, B.

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Donaldson, T. Panalaks, and J. Wolff and A. Wasserman, Nitrates, nitrites and nitrosamine, food stuff and tobacco contains nitrosamines, Science , 15—19 Magee, Possible hazard from nitrosamines in industry, Ann. Cohn, G. Zweig, M. Law, D. Wright, and W. Walker, M. Gastegnaro, L. Griciute, R. Lyle, and W.

Nagao, T. Sugimura, and T. Matsushima, Environmental mutagens and carcinogens, Ann. Eisenbrand, O. Ungerer, and R. Magee and E. Farber, Toxic liver injury and carcinogenesis: Methylation of rat liver nucleic acid by dimethylnitrosamine in vitro , Mechem. Magee and J. Barnes, Carcinogenic nitroso compounds, Adv. Cancer Res. Montesano and H.

Bartsch, Mutagenic and carcinogenic N-nitroso-compound: Possible environmental hazards. Anselme, ed. Washington, D. Garcia and W. Lijinsky, Studies of the tumorigenic effect in feeding of nitrosa mino acids and of low doses of amines and nitrite to rats, Z. Lijinsky and H. Taylor, Carcinogenicity of methylated nitrosopiperidine, Int. Cancer 16 , — a. Taylor, Carcinogenicity of methylated dinitropiperazine in rats. Taylor, Tumorigenesis by oxygenated nitrosopiperidines in rats, J. Cancer Inst. PubMed Google Scholar. Taylor, Carcinogenicity of N-nitroso 3,4-dichloro and N-nitroso3,4-dibromopiperidine in rats, Cancer Res.

Lijinsky and R. Walker, P. Bogovski, L. Griciate, and W. France Taylor, Carcinogenicity tests of N-nitroso derivatives of two drugs, phenmetrazine and methylphenidate, Cancer Lett. Taylor, Carcinogenesis tests of nitroso-N-methylpiperazine, 2,3,5,6-tetramethyl dinitrosopiperazine, nitrosoisonipecotic acid and nitrosomethyoxymethylamine in rat, Z. Love, W. Lijinsky, L. Andrew, L. Thibault, and W. Lijinsky, The relationship between mutagenicity and carcinogenicity of some nitrosamines, Mutas.

Lijinsky and A. Andrews, The mutagenicity of nitrosamines in Salmonella trphinturiunt, Mutat. Zeiger, M. Legator, and W. Lijinsky, Mutagenicity of N-nitrosopiperazine for Salmonella trphimurium in the host mediated assay, Cancer Res. Zeiger and A. Sheldon, The mutagenicity of nitropiperidines for Salmonella rphimurium Mutas Res.

Rao, A.


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Hardigree, J. Young, W. Lijinsky, and J. Epler, Mutagenicity of N-nitrosopiperidines with Salmonella trphimurium! Rao, J. Epler, Mutagenicity of N-nitrosopiperazine derivatives in Salmonella trphimurium , Mutat. Rao, D. Ramey, W. Epler, Mutagenicity of cyclic nitrosamines in Salmonella trphimurium, Mutat. Young, D.

follow link Epler, Mutagenicity of alphatic nitrosamines in Salmonella trphimurium, Mutat. Larimer, D. Epler, Mutagenicity of methylated N-nitrosopiperidines in Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Mutat. Larimer, A. Hardigree, W. Epler, Mutagenicity of Nnitrosopiperazine derivatives in Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Mutat. Nix, B.