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Collins was an internationally acclaimed expert on Sudan, Africa, and the Nile River, while Burr is a former State Department official who served in Sudan as an aid logistics director. Its sources are English- and French-language publications, including news wires and reports from diplomatic and human rights sources, as well as Arabic-language ephemera.

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Collins is an internationally acclaimed expert on Sudan, Africa, and the Nile River; Burr is a former State Department official who served in Sudan as an aid logistics director. The book is a reissue in the United States of a book published in the Netherlands in under the title Revolutionary Sudan: Hasan al-Turabi and the Islamist State, — A prominent American historian of Sudan, Robert Collins died in With a bibliography that is only two pages long, the book is primarily based on news reports from a wide variety of sources and personal communications to the well-connected authors.

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This is not an academic study in the sense of theoretically based arguments tested against evidence in the field, or even a biography of Turabi. Rather, it is a useful review in concise prose — that shows no favor for the regime in Khartoum — of the remarkable network of allies and alliances that Turabi established while in and out of prison.

The use of exclamation points, like on p. Education: B.

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University of Khartoum law, ; M. University of London law, ; Ph. University of Paris—Sorbonne constitutional law, Turabi's man influence, however, lies not in his statesmanship, but in his intellectual and ideological developments, as well as his impact on Islamism in North Africa in particular and the Arab world in general. Turabi is a fundamentalist Islamic thinker; he views Islam as the ultimate ideological and political authority for both state and society.

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  4. He believes that Islam contains all the necessary elements for the creation of a viable and modern civilization and culture. Rather than a return to earlier Islamic social and political practices, Turabi advocates a progressive Islamic revival that incorporates the best of traditional Islam and Western culture. He argues that the state's only purpose is to set rules to enable society to conduct its affairs, and that it must allow society, the primary institution in Islam, to freely pursue its interests.

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    The shari'a and the Islamist jurists ensure that the role of the state remains limited. Because any society has the right to exercise shura consultation and ijma consensus , and because this requires producing ijtihad opinions , pluralism is necessary to enable society to identify which policies best serve its interests. As such, Turabi argues, democracy is simply a Western term identical to Islam's shura and ijma. Although ultimate sovereignty belongs to God, practical and political sovereignty belong to the people.

    Turābī, Ḥasan

    Society, therefore, always remains free to choose its rulers and representatives. In this fashion, Islam can bring the best of its own civilization along with other civilizations. Turabi clearly distinguishes the conditions of contemporary life from those present during the rise of Islam in the seventh century. Because Muslims are living in a world much different from the one that Islamic jurisprudence legislated, they must look toward radical social and political reforms in order to bring about the necessary Islamic revival.

    The historical development of Islamic jurisprudence must be rejected in favor of a process that depends on free thinking, and the state must establish a new circle of ulama Islamic clergy while continuing to derive its jurisprudence from the people.

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    Any democratic developments in Islam must extend to the institutions of society and the family, each segment of which must work to further Islamic revival in both public and private life. Political freedom is an original part of the creed and nature because freedom is what distinguishes man from animal.

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    This includes the freedom of expression, which is stipulated in the shari'a. As for the individual, Turabi notes that a person is not forced to worship God, but chooses to do so. Individual freedom is essential and cannot be taken away by the state, institutions, or society. This freedom, he argues, must be embodied in a constitution to ensure that the strength of any political leader may be checked by representative councils.

    Revolutionary Sudan

    Because institutionalization of freedom inevitably leads to its destruction, individual freedoms are bound and protected by Islam. Turabi's views and writings on Islam seem to place him in the category of moderate Islamist thinkers, but the practice of his authority in Sudan suggests otherwise. Although he has called for freedom of association and multiparty representative bodies, the current Sudanese government has systematically destroyed most civic associations and remains one of the most oppressive regimes and egregious human-rights violators in the Middle East.

    Turabi is internationally known as an Islamic thinker and as a key figure in the modern political history of Sudan. He is also known for having given sanctuary in Sudan to Saudi militant usama bin ladin from — Human Rights Watch has accused Turabi of masterminding the police state and numerous human rights abuses committed between and Hasan al-Turabi will be remembered as the most important Islamic leader in modern Sudanese history, and a key figure in that country's history. Sadiq al-Mahdi — was born on 25 December in Omdurman, Sudan. He received his M.