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Yet incomes rise and poverty rates fall once the youngest child reaches kindergarten age and universal schooling is available to help families meet childcare obligations. This report looks more closely at the economic conditions facing parents of young children. We explore the demographics and economic data on households with children under 5 and use regression analysis to examine the differences between households with young children, those with no children, and households where all children have reached school age see the appendix for details on the regression analysis.

We consider the especially difficult circumstances facing single parents—particularly single mothers—and parents of color. And we investigate how policies in the workplace and the larger economy—including unstable work schedules, a lack of paid leave, low pay, employment discrimination, and a severe shortage of high-quality, affordable childcare—exacerbate the pressures that leave parents trapped. Finally we discuss the actions both private employers and public policymakers can take to better support families with young children and enable hard-working parents to escape this trap and raise their families without facing severe hardship.

Among our findings:. Being a good parent is always a challenging job. Striving to provide the next generation with the opportunity to succeed, parents offer their love, support, encouragement, and guidance. Yet working parents in America also face an additional set of challenges: from the time a baby is born, families are trapped between the need to provide care for their children and the need to earn income. The crisis of care is most acute when children are too young to be in school: families with children under age 5 have significantly lower incomes and higher poverty rates than households with older children or none at all.

Unstable work schedules, a lack of paid leave, low pay, and a severe shortage of high- quality, affordable childcare compound the strain on American parents. This report looks more closely at the economic conditions that trap the parents of young children between supporting their families and providing care. We explore the demographics and empirical economic data on households with children under 5 and use regression analysis to examine the differences between households with young children, those with no children, and households where all children have reached school age see the appendix for details on the regression analysis.

And we investigate how policies in the workplace and the larger economy exacerbate the pressures that leave parents trapped. Finally, we discuss the actions both private employers and public policymakers can take to better support families with young children and enable hard-working parents to escape the trap and raise their families without facing severe hardship. The reality today is that most parents must work even when their children are young. As growing numbers of women have entered the workforce in recent decades, families increasingly depend on the incomes of all working-age adults in the household.

In nearly 2 out of 3 families with a child under age 5, all parents in the household are employed. A majority of mothers with infants under a year old worked outside the home in , and more than two-thirds of mothers worked outside the home before their children reach school age. While parents are on the job, babies and young children still need care. The U. Census Bureau last analyzed childcare arrangements in , focusing on children under age 5. According to this analysis, shown in Figure 2, 61 percent of young children were in some type of regular childcare arrangement while a parent was working or in school.

A third of children under age 5 were in non-relative care, including day care centers, preschool, family day care, or another non-relative arrangement. A survey by Pew Research Center finds that half of all working parents report experiencing a major job or career interruption—reducing their work hours, taking a significant amount of time off, quitting a job, or turning down a promotion—in order to care for a child or other family member. In a separate survey, fully half of fathers said they had stopped working, switched to a less challenging job, or passed up a job opportunity in order to allow more time to care for their children.

Caring for young children while also earning the income to support them should not have to entail such arduous trade-offs. The concluding section of this paper explores improved business practices and public policy solutions that could help ease the strain on young families, improving the lives of parents and children and improving the odds that having a baby will no longer leave households broke.

In , 27 million Americans between the age of 18 and 64 were parents living with a child under 5. A close look at these families yields critical insights. As Figure 3 shows, the parents of children under age 5 are younger, more likely to live in poverty, and more likely to be Latino or Asian-Americans than other adults age Overall, 86 percent of parents with a child under 5 live with a partner, while 14 percent are single. Women comprise 89 percent of single parent households with young children. Overall, 55 percent of parents living with young children are mothers.

Most young children also live with at least one sibling: on average, households with a young child have 2 children. The parents of young children have diverse educational backgrounds. Parents currently enrolled in college also form part of this group. Parents of young children are more likely than other working-age adults to be people of color. While Latinos make up just 15 percent of adults without children and 19 percent of parents with older children, they represent 22 percent of adults with young children. The parents of young children are also significantly more likely to be Asian-American than adults without children.

For parents of color, the lower income level associated with having a young child is compounded by the broader labor market disadvantages faced by people of color, as shown in Figure 6. This gap is almost entirely a reflection of general racial income disparities rather than different responses to having children. Single parents consistently have lower incomes. Nearly 1 in 5 parents of young children live in poverty, a significantly higher poverty rate than for adults living without children or those with older children.

The poverty rate for single parents is higher still: a devastating 46 percent for single parents with a young child, compared to 20 percent for single adults with no children and 27 percent for single parents with a child older than 5. Black and Latino parents confront still higher poverty rates. Yet these disparities in income and poverty reflect not only the impact of having a young child but also the differing demographics of each group, discussed above.

For example, a lower median income among households with young children can be explained in part by the fact that adults with young children tend to be younger themselves and less advanced in their careers.

What to Say or Do From Diapers to Diploma A Parents Quick Reference Guide

The next section of this report discusses that analysis. The competing demands of work and caregiving place a particularly heavy burden on families with children too young to attend school, since young children require care for more hours of the day and purchasing childcare is considerably more expensive for babies and toddlers.

Evidence of the strain is visible in family incomes and poverty rates. These income differences, combined with an increased family size, are enough to throw many families into poverty: as shown in Figure 7, single mothers are 15 percent more likely to live in poverty than single women without children, after controlling for other factors. Partnered mothers and fathers face poverty rates about 3 percent higher than their counterparts with no children. For parents of color, the income penalty associated with having a young child is compounded by the broader labor market disadvantages faced by people of color.

Although our regression results show that the child income penalty is no larger for parents of color than for white parents, parents of color still earn lower wages than their white counterparts due to lower education levels, labor market discrimination, occupational segregation, and other factors. These factors combine to make it even harder for parents of color to make ends meet. Differences in employment and labor force participation contribute substantially to the income penalty associated with having a young child.

Having a young child has the strongest effect on whether mothers who live with a partner are in the labor force: after controlling for other factors, their labor force participation is 19 percent lower than partnered women without children, as illustrated in Figure 8. This effect is magnified for less-educated mothers of young children: after controlling for other factors, partnered mothers with a high school diploma or less are 21 percent less likely to be in the labor force than their counterparts without children. The cost of childcare is likely the primary cause of these lower labor force participation rates: mothers with less education generally earn lower wages, meaning that the expense of childcare may exceed—or nearly exceed—what they could earn outside the home for more on the cost of child care, see page Particularly when they have working partners, mothers with less education are spurred to leave the workforce and stay home with their children full-time.

Partnered fathers are pushed in the opposite direction: after controlling for other factors they are more likely to be in the labor force than their counterparts without children—regardless of their education level. With no partner to help provide income, single parents of both genders are more likely to seek work when their children are young.

After controlling for other factors, single mothers and fathers participate in the labor force at significantly higher rates—3 percent and 9 percent, respectively—than comparable adults without children. However, while labor force participation reflects a willingness and availability for work, it does not necessarily guarantee that the job seeker is successful in finding employment.

As shown in Figure 9, single mothers of young children face a particularly elevated rate of unemployment: 16 percent, overall, with even higher unemployment rates among single mothers of color and those with less education. We invite those interested in helping the program to volunteer with horse care, to donate financially or to join the strategic planning committee.

Many of you may think you are unable to give enough to help. But every amount helps. This week, on his last day of riding, a student came in with a handful of cash. It was his birthday money and money he earned form waxing cars from his wheelchair. This was his contribution to helping us succeed.

Helping Dropouts Drop Back In - Educational Leadership

It will not only help us to keep the herd together during this time but shows the importance of the program to our students and the community. Please do what you can to help this program succeed and come back stronger and better than before. If the assignment 's second, not all the s that we have will Very understand presented hiccups. It permits issued our distress that using MariaDB contains the best theme with books to t, and we are that you are it likely. Essential life skills for each individual are developed and improved through healthy recreational riding.

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Professional nannies manage all schedules, logistics, and needs for the entire family. Families are seeking nannies to take the child to activities and invest in their development and growth. They view the nanny as part of the childcare team. Family assistants are often committed to the role as their primary employment and have the maturity to work unsupervised while remaining responsible for several children and an allocated budget.

Family assistants have a combination of childcare experience, training, and organizational skills. Family Assistants often have between 2 to 5 years of in-home childcare experience with additional experience managing their own household or working in the service industry as a personal chef, pet sitter, or cleaning service provider. Most have CPR and First Aid certification, and most have completed childcare and household management programs.

Specialist nannies have varying qualifications that often include college degrees in Early Childhood Education, Special Needs Education, or Psychology. They generally have diverse work experiences as a nanny, in daycares, teaching, or child advocacy. Specialist nannies may also be travel nannies or having training in Montessori, RIE, or Waldorf child development approaches. Specialist nannies are passionate about their work and are often leaders in the nanny industry.

With so many different terms and titles, it can certainly feel overwhelming. It leads to a disconnect in expectations making it harder for families and nannies to manage expectations about job duties and compensation. Nannies often describe their careers and experiences using many of these terms. A career nanny has chosen childcare as their profession and has worked as a nanny for a significant amount of time.

He or she has made a conscious choice to remain in the field and has no intention to leave. A professional nanny has chosen childcare and treat the nanny job as they would any position in any other field. Professional nannies have signed a contract, often with a year commitment, and invest in training and professional development to better care for children. In this situation, the nanny either watches the children as a group or splits her time among the families. Most nanny shares watch the children together, but many families work together to come up with a schedule tailored to their specific needs.

Overnight nannies care for children off-hours and for a specific period, often a few weeks, allowing parents of newborns to get some much-needed rest. Overnight nannies can also be on-call when parents have jobs that require night shifts or job-related travel. Often a college student, these full-time nannies care for children during the summer break. Summer nannies make sure the children have their basic needs met as well as provide activities to do throughout the day.

Some summer nannies are live-ins while others work specified hours each week. Newborn care specialists help parents get much needed sleep, helping with feedings and bathing. A newborn care specialist typically comes to the home for several weeks after a child is born to help the parents develop healthy eating, sleeping, and care routines.

Nanny moms are professional childcare providers and career nannies who bring their own child to work.

Confessions of a {Former} Daycare Teacher

Families with only one child may seek out a nanny mom so the children can interact with other children while some families hire a great nanny who then starts their own family. Additional concerns include liability in the event of an accident. Au Pairs are part of a one-year culture exchange program where a host family in the United States provides room, board, a weekly salary, and a class.

In exchange, an au pair provides childcare as well as household duties pertaining to the children. Working up to 45 hours a week, au pairs integrate into the family. Au pair programs have very specific requirements and more information can be found at the US State Department.

There are a lot of things to consider when hiring a live-in nanny as this is not a typical job. A live-in nanny will work, eat and sleep under the same roof as your family, children, and pets. This means they will not leave your home when they finish work, so you will have to be disciplined to ensure you give them time off from their job duties at the appropriate times. They may be a teacher, a best friend, a mediator, an assistant, a first aid technician and so much more. It is imperative that you and the live-in nanny be cohesive with the child-rearing philosophy for the children and be consistent with the household rules.

You may become great friends but remember that you are also an employer. A live-in nanny can be a very rewarding experience but do not offer this type of position without understanding all the expectations. Childcare costs are often the highest or 2nd largest family expense and the salary you can afford to pay is one of the most important elements in finding a great nanny. The wide range in salaries reflects the flexibility in hiring a nanny. In this survey, the top variables that contributed to the salary range included location, job duties, education, experience, and tenure with the employer.

Nannies deserve fair wages as families seek affordable childcare. I have a full-time nanny and have to pay her a living wage out of my salary. In addition to wages, nannies should be reimbursed for mileage when transporting children and earn overtime. Many full-time, professional nannies also earn paid vacation, paid holidays, paid sick days, and reimbursement for continuing education.

Some families contribute to health insurance premiums, gym memberships, or provide a cell phone allowance but these are less common. Many companies offer services to manage the tax requirements. Everyone wants to earn fair compensation for their work, but many people are uncomfortable talking about money.


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To make things more complicated, wages for nannies and sitters vary greatly across the United States. Before you begin negotiations, you should know the average rate for your area and what level of experience the average salary represents. For the most part, the average wage reflects supervising 1 to 3 children with childcare only duties and holding the position for 1 to 2 years. For jobs that have additional children, meal preparations, and other duties, the salary may be higher. Keep this in mind when you are evaluating and posting hourly wages with the job description.

Families looking for nannies utilize the same resources.

Finding nanny candidates and selecting the right nanny for you takes time. Although the average is about 6 weeks, it can take several months to find your perfect nanny. Heated competition among families for top nannies requires employers to act fast but you must be careful to get the right fit for your family. Finding a nanny is different than hiring for a traditional job. I wanted to make sure I hired someone I felt I could trust to care for my only son.

There are too many to list but top online nanny recruiting sites include Care. These services require a monthly or annual fee to view nanny candidates. Online nanny job boards allow families to view candidates and post available jobs. A complete profile demonstrates a stronger commitment to finding a position than a limited profile. Information that is commonly entered includes their nanny experience, childcare training, salary requirements, references, and background check information. Most include a space for the nanny to share additional information to help families find candidates with similar employment goals.

Families can also post a job on most nanny job sites. The content of the job post can attract or repel top nanny talent so take a few minutes to write a strong job description. You may also want to share a quirky story about the children such as their favorite snack or how they like to ask a million questions. Be descriptive so that nannies have enough information to decide if they want to connect to learn more about the position.

To boost your profile value, ask your current nanny and occasional sitters to leave positive reviews and write insights into the comments box. Sarasota family needs a part-time, live-in nanny for early mornings, evenings, overnights, and weekends. The child is in daycare Monday — Friday, 8am — pm and a live-in is needed to build a strong bond with the child so the routine stays familiar when mom travels overnight on average nights a month for business. The nanny can have a second job or take college classes when the child is at daycare during the week as long as the nanny is available if there is an emergency or the child becomes ill and must go home.

The nanny should have current CPR and First Aid, at least some college or a childcare diploma, and 3 years of nanny experience. The ideal nanny will be looking to join our household long term with a minimum of a one-year commitment. For those who like pets, we have a cat. Families can choose to use a nanny agency or domestic placement service to help find their nanny. A reputable nanny placement service, including those accredited by the Association of Premier Nanny Agencies APNA , can help find top nannies in your area, trading time and effort for a referral fee.

A nanny agency saves between hours of work posting the position, screening applicants, checking references, and completing the background check. With a database full of nannies, an agency may shorten the time to hire a qualified nanny and help families who are hiring their first nanny. The first step is meeting with someone at the nanny agency and sharing a snapshot of your needs. Read the contract carefully as most nanny agencies do not offer refunds if a referred nanny quits or does not work out. Most contracts also say the nanny agency will make their best effort, but they do not guarantee they will find you a nanny.

Most reputable nanny agencies will include a free referral replacement if the nanny departs the position within 1 year. Working with a nanny agency should be conversational with information being shared back and forth. This exchange will help the nanny agency better understand how to provide the best candidates. How many references do they check? When you have completed the application form, family information form, and signed a contract, the nanny agency will introduce you to nannies that meet your job requirements for you to interview.

In addition to referring candidates, nanny agencies can provide local information to help you offer a competitive salary. Ultimately, it is up to you to determine if you want to hire one of the candidates, and if so, the hiring process and work agreement are between you and the nanny.

How We Make It Work

The nanny agency earns its fee for making the referral. There are local resources that can also lead to finding a great nanny.

These forums are great places to find families who no longer need a nanny but want to recommend their employees. With the connections across social media, posts can be shared which help a family network through extended family, friends and even acquaintances. Non-traditional sites can be a gold mine to finding high-quality nannies.

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University job boards are a fantastic way to find part-time help for after school care or a summer nanny. Sites like Craigslist and traditional job boards like Indeed can find former daycare workers and those looking for part-time positions. Be appropriately wary when meeting people online. The internet is a great tool to find nannies but not everything shared online is honestly represented.

Before interviewing a Nanny, you should know the requirements and skills needed for the job and have a thorough job description available. You are hiring a nanny, not trying to make a friend or help someone who needs a job. I look for an investment in childcare training and I always call their references after conducting a background check.

You want to hire a nanny who makes you feel confident that they are qualified to provide great care for your children. Asking about and hearing stories on how nannies interact with children and what ages they have cared for is a great way to learn about their skills. If you are interviewing several nannies, it will help to print out the questions and take notes as the nanny provides the answer.

This will be a huge advantage as you review the nannies, especially if you interview nannies in a single week. This allows you to restate the requirements for your job and begin with easy to answer questions. When nannies share certifications and course completion certificates, take time to check the reputation of the organization. It is helpful to share information about your family and the children before diving into child experience questions.

What a 3 or 4 year old needs to know…

Explain how you see the nanny fitting into the current structure and schedule of the family as well as share some insights on the personalities of the children. Finding a great fit will be important for success with a nanny. The parents, nanny, and all children need to be comfortable. Here are a few questions to help you understand if the connection feels right. Being an employer means your home is a workplace. Federal laws require an employer to have at least 5 employees before these regulations take effect; however, it is appropriate to follow these regulations as they are designed to establish fair hiring practices.

You cannot ask any questions surrounding these issues. To be an equal opportunity employer, you cannot ask a nanny if he or she has children of their own or plans to have children in the future. It is okay; however, for a nanny to volunteer they are a nanny mom or that they are planning to have their own children. To be an equal opportunity employer, you cannot ask a nanny if they are a citizen from another country, but you can ask a nanny if they can provide documentation to legally work in the United States.